Latest Articles

Exploring Stability and Freedom with the GYROKINESIS® Method
Stylish Prosthetic Limbs Boost Amputees’ Quality of Life
National Biomechanics Day 2018: Opening Young Minds to a Burgeoning Field
The PodPAD Project: A Podiatry-led Integrated Pathway for People with Peripheral Arterial Disease in the UK – a Pilot Study

Special Features

THANK YOU…and Onward to 2019!

Lower Extremity Review extends heartfelt thanks to our readers, advertisers, countless medical experts, and—listed below—our many authors and the members of the LER Editorial Advisory Board. Without the support of all of you, LER would not be possible. Thank you for your encouragement, involvement, and loyalty during 2018—a year of transition for the publication, for sure.

We look forward to 2019: to hearing your ideas and to delivering clinical reviews, news, and opinion to keep you informed of best practices and help you improve outcomes. We encourage you to let us know what we’re doing right (and to tell us when you disagree or when we just plain get it wrong). Our mission is always to help you help your patients.

Here’s to a happy, healthy 2019!

Rich Dubin, Publisher + Janice T. Radak, Editor


  • Marianne Adams, MA, MFA
  • Thomas Gus Almonroeder, PT, DPT, PhD
  • Andrea Baellow, MS
  • Hank Black
  • Lori A. Bolgla, PT, PhD, MAcc, ATC
  • Michelle C. Boling, PhD, LAT, ATC
  • Benn Jason Scott Boshell, MSc, BSc (Hons)
  • Barbara Boughton
  • Uli Brüderlin
  • Andrew K. Buldt, BPod(Hons), PhD
  • Kathleen Cameron, MPH
  • Nicholas A. Campitelli, DPM, FACFAS
  • Nachiappan Chockalingam, PhD
  • Ralf Colin
  • D. Chris Cothern PT, CES, PES
  • Tyler Coye, BA
  • Sally Crawford, MS
  • Patrick A. DeHeer, DPM, FACFAS, FASPS, FFPM RCPS (Glasg)
  • Paul DeVita, PhD
  • Matthew Dilnot, DPM
  • Jill R. Dorson
  • Ian Engelman, MS, CPO
  • Vicki Foerster, MD, MSc
  • Kathrin Freyler
  • Neal R. Glaviano, PhD, AT, ATC
  • Albert Gollhofer
  • Cary Groner
  • Terry P. Haines
  • Laura Hochnadel
  • Jonathan L. Hook, DPM, MHA
  • Ken Johnson, PT
  • Anne Krause
  • Jonathan Labovitz, DPM, FACFAS, CHCQM
  • Keith Loria
  • Curt Martini, DPM
  • James McGuire, DPM, PT, LPed, FAPWHc
  • Hylton B. Menz, BPod(Hons), PhD, DSc
  • Tom Michaud, DC
  • Karen Mickle, BSc (Hons), PhD
  • Joseph M. Mozena
  • Harry L. Penny, DPM, DABPM, FAPWHc
  • Elizabeth W. Peterson, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA
  • Donald C. Pompan, MD
  • Ramona Ritzmann
  • J. Kim Ross, DC, PhD
  • Gary M. Rothenberg, DPM, CDE, CWS
  • Susan Saliba, PhD, MPT, Med
  • Susan Sanford, PT, LAc, C.SMA
  • Jay Segel, DPM
  • Richard Schilling, DPM, FACFAS
  • Jarrod Shapiro, DPM, FACFAS, FACFAOM
  • William Smith, MSPT, CPed
  • Scott A. Spencer, DPM
  • Emily Splichal, DPM
  • Phil Stevens, MEd, CPO, FAAOP
  • Thomas Stocker
  • Rene Stolwyk
  • Audris Tien, DPM
  • Sarah Marie Tighe, SPT
  • Harald Töpfer
  • Robert A. Weil, DPM
  • Nicole Wetsman
  • Bruce Williams, DPM, DABPS
  • Cylie M. Williams
  • Joseph G. Wilson, DPM
  • T. Craig Wirt, DPM, PhD
  • Mariana Wingood, DPT, PT, GCS, CEEAA
  • Lori Yarrow, DC, BPE
  • Julia Yuncken

Editorial Advisory Board

  • Craig R. Bottoni, MD
  • Jonathan L. Chang, MD
  • Sarah Curran, PhD, FCPodMed
  • Stefania Fatone, PhD, BPO
  • Timothy E. Hewett, PhD
  • Robert S. Lin, CPO
  • Jeffrey A. Ross, DPM, MD
  • Erin D. Ward, DPM
  • Bruce E. Williams, PDM

Patellofemoral Pain: An Ongoing Orthopedic Enigma

Patellofemoral pain (PFP), also known as anterior knee pain, is one of the most common but complex knee problems to manage. PFP affects approximately 23% of the general population and 29% of adolescents. Moreover, females are twice as likely to develop PFP as males. Long considered a “self-limiting” problem, recent evidence has suggested that PFP is an ongoing disease process that can progress to patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis in later years. This trend highlights the importance of the development and implementation of evidence-based interventions.

PFP is characterized by pain and tenderness around and behind the patella. Individuals primarily complain of symptoms during weight-bearing activities that require repetitive knee flexion. Common complaints of pain occur during walking, running, stair ambulation, squatting, and kneeling. Many people also report pain resulting from excessive compression after sitting for a long time with the knee flexed. Other impairments associated with PFP include 1) quadriceps and gluteal muscle weakness; 2) decreased quadriceps, hamstring, and calf flexibility; and 3) faulty hip and knee movement during dynamic activities.

By Lori A Bolgla, PT, PhD, MAcc, ATC, and Michelle C Boling, PhD, LAT, ATC

New NATA Recommendations Address Patellofemoral Pain

Patellofemoral pain (PFP), one of the most common knee problems in active people, is also one of the most challenging conditions to manage, due to its complex nature. To support athletic trainers and other healthcare providers who treat the problem, the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) has published recommendations and a framework for identifying risk factors and managing patients who experience PFP.

Poor Balance Tied to Visual Acuity–Peripheral Vascular Disease Interaction

Poor vision has long been known as a risk factor for poor balance. This is particularly true in older adults as they perform complex balancing tasks, such as standing on 1 foot. A team of Canadian researchers wanted to determine whether poor vision would be more strongly related to standing balance in older adults who had peripheral vascular disease (PVD) or diabetes.

ADA Issues New Guidelines for Youth with T2D

Youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D), defined as T2D that develops before 20 years of age, is a growing medical challenge in the United States. A national study reported a 4.8% increase in newly diagnosed cases of T2D in this age group from 2002 to 2012.

VA Reports Downward Trend in Surgical Adverse Events

In an 8-year quality improvement follow-up study of reported surgical adverse events (AEs) at the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA), researchers found 277 AEs and 206 “close calls.” The data show a continuing of the downward trend from 1.74 to 0.47 AEs with harm for every 100,000 procedures, compared to the previous similar VHA studies (the periods 2001-2006 and 2006-2009).

HIPAA Violations Can Be Costly

A Connecticut allergy practice has agreed to pay $125,000 and enter a corrective action plan to settle an alleged Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule violation. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the violation occurred when one of the practice’s physicians disclosed a patient’s protected health information to a member of the media.


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