Cover Story

Going for the cold: Cryotherapy and physical performance

Cryotherapy applied to a joint may not necessarily have the same effects on balance and physical performance that have been demonstrated in applications involving muscle.

By Emily E. Williams, ATC, and Giampietro L. Vairo, PhD, ATC

Editor Message

Out on a limb: Seeing upside in O&P

“You are what your record says you are.” Hall of Fame football coach Bill Parcells said it first, and it’s a saying that applies to many aspects of life. But when it comes to prescribing orthotic and prosthetic devices, clinicians know that the numbers don’t always tell the whole story.

Jordana Bieze Foster, Editor

Special Education Series: Pediatric Hypotonia

Mobility and More

At the most basic level, mobility is about getting from point A to point B. But, for many children with hypotonia, it’s about so much more.

It’s about independence. It’s about confidence. It’s about maintaining strength, fitness, and healthy bones. It’s about not being excluded from activities enjoyed by their typically developing peers.

Sponsored by an educational grant from SureStep.



Internal vs external focus: Effects on motor learning

A growing body of research is demonstrating that the focus of actions or movements is critical to how well athletes and patients respond to feedback from instructors or clinicians, and one of the central issues is the distinction between internal focus and external focus.

By Cary Groner

Debating corticosteroid injections for heel pain

Some practitioners find plantar fasciitis patients respond to corticosteroid injection when other treatments have failed, but concerns about complications make others cautious. With evidence-based guidelines in short supply, the decision often comes down to clinical experience.

By Larry Hand

Many patients are not aware of the need for protection and cannot be expected to take the necessary precautions on their own.
AFOs and interfaces: The important role of socks

Interface use has long been the subject of study and clinical emphasis in prosthetics, but too little attention has been given to the role of interfaces—padded socks in particular—in protecting the skin and soft tissues from forces experienced during ankle foot orthosis use.

By Harry “J.R.” Brandt Jr, CO, LO, BOCO

Knee OA, BMI, and pain: A complex relationship

Excess body weight is considered by many experts to be the primary modifiable etiological factor in knee osteo­arthritis (OA) development. However, the relationship among body mass index (BMI), the anatomical manifestations of knee OA, and knee pain is not clear-cut.

By Elizabeth Weiss, PhD

Compression stockings: Progress and pitfalls

Research supports the use of compression stockings for managing peripheral edema, venous insufficiency, and venous leg ulcers. But, outside the laboratory, issues related to patient compliance and achieving a proper stocking fit remain significant clinical challenges.

By Greg Gargiulo