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August 2017

Frontal plane kinematics and risk of ankle sprain

Research suggests that a simple step-down task has a strong relationship with frontal plane ankle kinematics during walking and jump landing, and may be one method of screening or assessing for increased inversion—and, in turn, increased risk of future ankle sprain—in clinical settings.

By Luke Donovan, PhD, ATC; and Mark A. Feger, PhD, ATC Continue reading

August 2017

AFOs and balance issues in peripheral neuropathy

At a symposium in Cape Town, South Africa, an orthotist demonstrated his technique for treating balance issues in patients with peripheral neuropathy using ankle foot orthoses (AFOs), and a team of researchers theorized about evidence-based concepts that could help explain his findings.

By Cary Groner Continue reading

August 2017

Biomechanics of femoral neck fractures in runners

Factors related to joint loading during running contribute to the development of stress fractures in the femoral neck and other lower extremity structures. Research suggests these loading parameters can be reduced by altering running foot strike pattern, stride length, speed, and step rate.

By Mark Riebel, PT, DSc, OCS, SCS Continue reading

August 2017

Clinical prediction rules: Finding a middle ground

Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) are intended to improve patient care, but critics have suggested that—for a number of reasons—the opposite may be true. Lower extremity experts interviewed by are in agreement that, ultimately, even the best CPRs should be only one piece of the clinical puzzle.

By Cary Groner Continue reading

August 2017

Flip Flops: Biomechanical critiques resonate with clinicians and designers

It’s no secret by now that traditional flimsy flip flops are associated with gait alterations that can contribute to more serious issues, but for many patients, flip flops are a hard habit to break. A new generation of “comfort” flip flops offers an alternative, but clinicians remain wary.

By Shalmali Pal Continue reading

July 2017

Tactical athletes: Maximizing their ability to protect and serve

Increasingly, clinicians and researchers are focusing on tactical athletes—including warfighters, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and other professionals—as a unique population with regard to lower extremity injuries.

By Hank Black Continue reading

July 2017

Recent trends favor use of bracing for knee OA

Experts say new research underscoring the clinical benefits of bracing for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), along with more comfortable device designs aimed at improving patient compliance, may help boost the historically low rates of brace utilization in this patient population.

By Barbara Boughton  Continue reading

July 2017

An interdisciplinary take on diabetic limb salvage

Developing a multidisciplinary team dedicated to diabetic limb salvage allows for immediate referral, lessens the burdens on individual practitioners, helps remove structural barriers that can delay patient care, and offers a framework in which to organize inpatient care for these patients.

By Brian M. Schmidt, DPM, AACFAS Continue reading

June 2017

Slacklining: Trendy sport takes balance training to new heights

As slacklining’s popularity grows, researchers have begun to uncover physiological and neurological evidence for how and why the activity may be beneficial to people with balance, strength, and mobility issues.

By Brigid Elsken Galloway Continue reading

June 2017

Study challenging Root concepts reignites debate

The latest paper to challenge biomechanics-based foot orthotic management concepts developed decades ago has revital­ized a long-running discussion among foot specialists about how to define normal structure and function and which assessments should be used in prescribing foot orthoses.

By Cary Groner Continue reading

June 2017

Minimalist shoes: Risks and benefits for runners

Although there may be benefits to a change in running footwear, there are also risks associated with a switch to minimalist running shoes. Alterations in anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics associated with transitioning to minimalist footwear are likely to be unique to each runner.

By J. Todd Walker, MD; Donna Moxley Scarborough, PT, MS; Eric M. Berkson, MD; and Matthew J. Salzler, MD Continue reading

June 2017

Management of painful plantar fat pad atrophy

Aging and a number of medical conditions can lead to atrophy of the fat pads under the heel and forefoot, which often causes considerable pain. Cushioned footwear and orthoses are mainstays of treatment, but research also supports the use of fat grafting in recalcitrant cases.

By Barbara Boughton  Continue reading

May 2017

Stepping Up: Orthotic devices help patients boost physical activity levels

Improved mobility with ankle foot orthoses and other devices can help patients experience the multiple health benefits of increased physical activity. But aggressive activity goals— including the oft-cited target of 10,000 steps per day— may still be problematic for some device users.

By Larry Hand Continue reading

May 2017

National Biomechanics Day thrills kids worldwide

National Biomechanics Day continued to build momentum in its second year, as scientists from Delaware to New Zealand got a jump on recruiting the next generation of biomechanists by demonstrating a wide range of applications—not to mention just how much fun the field can be.

By Hank Black Continue reading

May 2017

Stress fractures: Lessons from military research

Lower extremity stress fractures are not limited to members of the armed forces, but have been studied extensively in military populations. That body of evidence has important implications for stress fracture prevention and management in runners, other athletes, and even nonathletes.

By Baris K. Gun, DO; Andrew C. McCoy, DPM; Kevin C. Wang, BS; and Brian R. Waterman, MD Continue reading

May 2017

Somatosensory deficits following ACL surgery

Research suggests light touch sensation in the foot and ankle may be negatively affected several years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction—a finding consistent with studies that have reported decreased somatosensation in patients with other lower extremity conditions.

By Matthew Hoch, PhD, LAT; Steven Morrison, PhD; and Johanna Hoch, PhD, LAT Continue reading

May 2017

Unique orthotic strategies for low-volume footwear

The low-volume shoes worn by cyclists, figure skaters, and others can make orthotic management of these patients challenging. So, lower extremity practitioners have had to develop creative strategies for achieving the desired biomechanical effects while working within a limited space.

By Jill R. Dorson Continue reading

April 2017

From prints to prison: Forensic podiatry and gait analysis gain ground

Increasingly, lower extremity experts are being called on to assist with crime scene investigations by analyzing footprints, shoe prints, and the gait patterns of shadowy figures on security videos. For members of this fledgling field, as Sherlock Holmes famously said, the game is afoot.

By Shalmali Pal Continue reading

April 2017

Protocol helps improve TKA outcomes, cut costs

A multidisciplinary joint replacement program is improving patient outcomes, decreasing complications, and shortening hospital stays, which helps to lessen clinical anguish following total knee arthroplasty as well as the financial burden on patients and the healthcare system.

By Katie Mullen, SPT; Jon R. Cook, PT, DPT; Meghan Warren, PT, MPH, PhD; and Tarang Jain, PT, PhD, DPT Continue reading

April 2017

Metatarsal morphology and injury risk in runners

Although it has not been shown to be a risk factor for stress fracture in traditional running, the presence of Morton’s foot (a second metatarsal longer than the first) alters running mechanics in ways that may exacerbate the risks of forefoot injury associated with alternative running styles.

By Brian E Stoltenberg, DPT, OCS, CSCS; and Donald L Goss, PT, PhD, OCS, ATC Continue reading

April 2017

The troublesome triad of diabetic ulcer healing

Uncontrolled deformity, deep infection, and ischemia-hypoxia make up the troublesome triad of confounders associated with healing challenges in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Clinical examination and intervention in nonhealing patients should focus on these three elements.

By Anna Maria M. Tan, DPM; Michael B. Strauss, MD; and Lientra Q. Lu, BS    Continue reading

March 2017

April LER Issue Flipbook is live!

Check out the latest issue of LER as a digital flipbook. Continue reading

March 2017

Knee OA in amputees: Biomechanical and technological considerations

The risk of knee osteoarthritis in the intact limb of longtime unilateral amputees is much higher than in non­amputees, and the range of potential contri­buting factors is even more complex. Optimizing prosthetic fit and function, in addition to more conventional OA interventions, can help address gait issues that contri­bute to knee joint degeneration.

By Emily Delzell Continue reading

March 2017

Rocker-bottom footwear: effects on balance, gait

Footwear with rocker soles are best known for helping to redistribute plantar pressures during gait in patients with diabetes, but research suggests they also have clinically relevant effects on balance and gait that can be beneficial for some populations but potentially dangerous for others.

By Greg Gargiulo Continue reading

March 2017

Chronic ankle instability and self-reported function

Using patient-reported outcome tools can give lower extremity clinicians insight into the disability experienced by patients with chronic ankle instability. A combination of instruments may be necessary, as different assessments may capture different aspects of the condition.

By Adam B. Rosen PhD, ATC; and Cathleen N. Brown PhD, ATC Continue reading