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Issue ArchivesAdditional Resources
Special Editorial Supplements
- UP THE CHAIN: How lower extremity care can improve spinal health
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: 2017 ISPO World Congress
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: 2017 IOC World Conference
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: 2015 ISPO World Congress
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: Ortho Technology Forum 2015
- Orthotic management of CMT: Dynamic solutions for active lifestyles
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: Orthotics Technology Forum 2014
- ATHLETES AND INJURIES: The global question of prevention
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: Orthotics Technology Forum 2013
- SPECIAL SECTION: Teachings from the East
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: International Clubfoot Symposium
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: Orthotics Technology Forum 2012
- STEPS AHEAD: Advances in foot and ankle biomechanics
- CONFERENCE COVERAGE: Custom Orthotic Insoles Technology Forum
- DEFENSIVE GAME PLAN: Global insights on sports injury prevention
- Recent Advances in Orthotic Therapy
Category Archives: Cover Story
Landing and change of direction in volleyball can put players at risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Few ACL prevention studies have focused on volleyball, but players can benefit from screening and intervention programs that have been shown to be effective in other sports.
By Joanne L. Parsons, MSc, PT, CAT(C)
Researchers have established that elevated levels of glycated hemoglobin in patients with diabetes are associated with poor outcomes after foot and ankle surgery. Now the challenge is to identify an “acceptable” glycated hemoglobin level below which the benefits of surgery outweigh the risk of complications.
By Naohiro Shibuya, DPM, MS, FACFAS, Jon M. Humphers, DPM, and Daniel C. Jupiter, PhD
The ability to achieve a 90° squat appears to have important functional implications for patients rehabilitating from total knee arthroplasty. However, detecting impairment may require more rigorous methods than conventional sit-to-stand testing.
By Mark D. Rossi, PhD, PT, CSCS, and Denis Brunt, EdD, PT
Studies of the kinematic variables associated with medial tibial stress syndrome suggest possible targets for prevention and intervention, including the use of foot orthoses.
By Janice K. Loudon, PT, PhD, SCS, ATC, and Michael P. Reiman, PT, DPT, OCS, SCS, ATC, FAAOMPT, CSCS
Video gaming technology is finding its way into clinical practice, and research supports its effectiveness for improving balance, strength, and function. But studies also suggest some patient populations may be more responsive to exer-gaming than others.
By Samantha Rosenblum
Kickboxing isn’t just for elite martial artists. In fact, preliminary research suggests the kicks, punches, and knee movements associated with the sport can improve balance and mobility in patients with multiple sclerosis. And as an added bonus, it’s also fun.
By Kurt Jackson PT, PhD, GCS, and Kimberly Edginton-Bigelow, PhD
Competitive figure skating today is much less about artistry and much more about athleticism than in years past. Training is longer and harder than ever, while the classic unforgiving skate boot design has remained essentially unchanged. And lower extremity injuries in skaters are on the rise.
By Nathan W. Saunders, MA, and Steven T. Devor, PhD, FACSM
The achievement of independent walking is a major focus of rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Even when mobility could be achieved more easily through the use of assistive technologies such as wheelchairs, independent walking is typically pursued as a major rehabilitation goal and other forms of mobility are often discouraged.
By Barbara E. Gibson, BMR(PT), MSc, PhD
Evidence is linking genetic mutations to Achilles tendon and anterior cruciate ligament injuries as researchers try to connect complex motor control processes to small segments of DNA. But genetic testing is still a long way from becoming a clinical tool.
By Larry Hand
There were no medals for the orthotists, prosthetists, and other lower extremity specialists in attendance at the 2012 games in London. But thousands of world-class athletes couldn’t have succeeded without them.
By Emily Delzell
The Triad’s new definition specifies low energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone mineral density as predictors of future health risks, including lower extremity injuries. This broader definition means far more female athletes may be at risk than previously thought, particularly in the high school setting.
By Jill Thein-Nissenbaum, PT, DSc, SCS, ATC
Studies suggest that ankle foot orthoses can improve balance in some individuals, so it might seem logical that they would also help prevent falls. But the medical literature has yet to reveal a direct connection between AFOs and falls risk, and as a result the issue has become a magnet for debate.
By Cary Groner
Researchers at The Pennsylvania State University have identified structural characteristics that distinguish the foot and ankle mechanics of trained sprinters from nonsprinters. Are similar underlying variables responsible for the reductions in mobility that affect older adults?
By Stephen J. Piazza, PhD
Given the accumulating evidence linking anterior cruciate ligament injury to early-onset osteoarthritis, one might reason that surgical repair of the injured joint would decrease that risk. But too often that isn’t the case. This two-part series explores the complicated ways, both negative and positive, that surgery can influence OA risk.
By Cary Groner
Night splinting for plantar fasciitis gets the lion’s share of attention, but lower extremity practitioners are also seeing positive results with night use of orthoses for conditions ranging from cerebral palsy to AIDS.
By Larry Hand
Published guidelines for management of plantar fasciitis don’t cover every detail of which interventions to try, in what order, and for how long. As a result, every practitioner tends to interpret the gray areas just a little differently.
By Cary Groner
Quantitative research from The Netherlands suggests that for every ankle foot orthosis, there is an optimal stiffness associated with the lowest energy cost of walking for a given set of gait-related impairments. Achieving this optimal device stiffness in practice, however, may require clinicians to rethink conventional approaches to AFO prescription.
By Daan J.J. Bregman, PhD
One is an acute injury, the other a chronic condition. But researchers believe it’s no coincidence that anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain syndrome share many of the same risk factors. The next step is to determine if a single intervention can effectively prevent both.
By Cary Groner
Essential to the beauty of dance are the demanding biomechanics of the dancer, particularly at the foot and ankle. Injuries and pain are almost inevitable. But an understanding of the underlying issues—artistic as well as anatomical—can help practitioners keep dancers on their toes for as long as possible.
By Jeffrey A. Russell, PhD, ATC
Researchers from New York University have found that wearing high heels increases muscle activation, which can have painful ramifications throughout the kinetic chain. Some individuals, however, seem to adapt to high heels more effectively than others.
By Smita Rao, PT, PhD, and Renata Ripa, MA
There’s no question that exercise is good for kids. But the trauma associated with some youth sports can dramatically increase the risk that those kids will develop knee or ankle osteoarthritis by the time they reach adulthood. The key next step is to determine what can be done about it.
By Yvonne M. Golightly, PT, PhD, Stephen W. Marshall, PhD, and Dennis J. Caine, PhD
A recent paper suggests that a checklist system can help practitioners educate caregivers about orthotic device use in children with CP, which could improve compliance. But experts differ as to whether such checklists make sense in the complex world of O&P devices.
By Larry Hand
Changing the way people walk can significantly decrease knee external adduction moments, which in turn appears to relieve pain and possibly slow the progression of osteoarthritis. The challenge, however, is finding a gait modification that feels and appears natural to patients.
By Lydia Caldwell, BS, and Joaquin Barrios, PT, DPT, PhD
Exercise is a cornerstone of treatment for diabetes, but for years patients with peripheral neuropathy have been discouraged from weight-bearing exercise for fear of further increasing ulceration risks. Now new research is turning that advice on its head.
By Cary Groner
Injuries in softball pitchers typically occur in the upper extremities, but focusing rehabilitation and prevention efforts on the upper body alone ignores the essential supporting roles played by the pelvis and lower extremities in providing a stable base for the pitching motion.
By Gretchen D. Oliver, PhD, ATC, LAT